Nepal is small but diverse country in terms of flora and fauna. The elevation of Nepal varies from the Southern part of Nepal to the highest peak in the world, Mt. Everest-8848m (Sagarmatha). Nepal possesses the most splendid sceneries in the world with the massive variety of flora and fauna. It’s rich feature of diversity is unequaled elsewhere in the world. In Nepal’s geographical context, it is very easy to find every type of vegetation from the treeless steppes of the Trans-Himalayan region, silver fir, the birch, larch and hemlock of the higher valleys to the pine, oak and rhododendron of the intermediate altitudes and the great Sissau and Sal forests of the south. Exploring flora and fauna in Nepal is the best experience to have during the trip.
Flora and Fauna in Nepal can be categorized as:
1. Tropical Deciduous Monsoon Forest
The tropical region includes the Terai Steppes and the broad flat valleys found amongst the hill ranges. The prevailing plant species of this region are Asna (Terminalia Termentosa), Sal (Shorea Robusta) and Semal (Bombax Malabricum). This tropical region is rich for wildlife. Gaurs, wild buffalo, leopard, tiger, rhino and many others can be available on this region. Different types of birds can also be found in this region.
2. Subtropical mixed Evergreen Forest
The subtropical section comprises the Mahabharat Lake which rises above the altitude of 2400 m comprising the outer wall of the Himalayan range. Different species of rhododendron and Oak are found on this section. Many other flora blossom in this region during various seasons. Animals such as barking deer, bear, wild boar, etc are found in this area.
3. Temperate Evergreen Forest
Plants types like Pines and Oaks are prevailing in this area. Maples, Bamboo and Rhododendron are normally found at 3600-3900m. The wildlife of this region involves barking deer, wild boar, Himalayan bear, Serow and many others found in this region. The national bird of Nepal, Danphe can be found in this area.
4. Subalpine and Alpine Zone
Various types of Juniper, Rhododendrons and other vegetation are found on this area. Variation of short grasses, alpine plants and sedge mosses are seen blossoming in regions where there is adequate soil for their growth. Faunas available in this region involves mouse hare, musk deer, thar, snow leopard and many others. Tibetan sheep and wild yaks can be sighted in some portion of this region. Different birds such as snow partridge, chough, snowcock, lammergeyer, bunting etc. are found on this region.